Major Topics Included In Biology

Major Topics Included In Biology


I. Introduction

A. Course Overview
B. Characteristics of Living Things
C. The Nature of Science Compared to Non-Science
D. Scientific Method
E. Experimental vs. Observational Science

II. Chemistry

A. Atomic Structure: Subatomic Particles, Electron Shells
B. Chemical Bonding: Covalent, Ionic, Hydrogen Bonds
C. Biologically Important Compounds and Molecules
    1. Properties of Water
    2. Acids, Bases, Buffers
    3. Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins & Nucleic Acids

III. Cell Biology

A. Comparison of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell Structures
B. Eukaryotic Cell Structure
    1. Functions of Organelles
      Nucleus
      Ribosome
      Endoplasmic Reticulum
      Mitochondrion
      Chloroplast
      Lysosome
      Golgi Complex
      Peroxisome (Microbody)
      Centriole
      Cilium/Flagellum
      Cytoskeleton
    2. Membrane Structure and Function
    3. Movement Across Membranes
      Diffusion/Osmosis
      Facilitated Diffusion
      Active Transport
      Endocytosis and Exocytosis
C. Energy Conversion in Eykaryotic Cells
    1. Laws of Thermodynamics
    2. Energy Flow: Photosynthesis, Cell Respiration
      2a. Photosynthesis
        1. Structure of the Chloroplast
        2. Light Reaction of Photosynthesis
          aa. Location
          ab. Photosystems and Their Pigments
          ac. The Role of H2O
          ad. The Role of NADP
          ae. The Role of Electron Transport
          af. Chemiosmotic Phosphorulation
        3. Light Independent Reaction - Calvin Cycle
          aa. The Role of RuBP
          ab. The Role of CO2
          ac. The Role of NADPH2
          ad. The Role of Rubisco Enzyme
          ae. The Role of ATP
        4. How Are Cycles Dependent On One Another
        5. Overall Equation
        6. C3 and C4 Photosynthesis
      2b. Cellular Oxidation of Glucose
        1. Mitochondrion Structure
        2. Glycolysis
          aa. Where is ATP Required
          ab. Where is ATP Produced
          ac. What is Net Gain in ATP
          ad. Compare Aerobic and Anaerobic Glycolysis
          ae. What is the Role of NAD
          af. What is the Purpose of Anaerobic Glycolysis
        3. Conversion of Pyruvate to AcCoA.
        4. Kreb's Cycle and the Role of AcCoA
          aa. Role of NAD
          ab. Role of FAD
          ac. Net Gain of ATP
        5. Electron Transport System
          aa. What is the Role of FADH2 and NADH
          ab. What are its Components
          ac. What is the Role of O2
          ad. How Much ATP is Produced per NADH, FADH2
        6. Overall Equation For Cellular Oxidation of Glucose
        7. Net ATP Production Per Glucose

IV. Genetics: Heredity

A. Mendel's Laws and Modern Genetic Terminology
B. Monohybrid Crosses and Dihybrid Crosses
C. Patterns of Inheritance
    1. Dominant/Recessive
    2. Sex-linked
    3. Incomplete Dominance
    4. Co-dominance
    5. Polygenic Inheritance
    6. Multiple Alleles
D. The Genetics of ABO and Rh Blood Groups

V. Genetics: Molecular

A. Structure and Replication of DNA
B. Structure of RNA
C. Transcription and Translation
D. Control of Expression
E. Techniques of Molecular Genetics
    1. DNA Fingerprint
    2. PCR
    3. Techniques For Inserting Genes Into Cells

VI. Origin of Life

A. Spontaneous Generation
B. Chemosynthetic Origin
    1. Inorganics to Organics
    2. Organics to Macromolecules
    3. Protocells
    4. Other Considerations (RNA World?) As Time Permits

VII. Evolution (Origin of Species)

A. History of Development of Evolutionary Principle
    1. Lamarck
    2. Cuvier
    3. Malthus
    4. Darwin
    5. Lyell
B. Mechanisms of Evolution
    1. Genetic change
    2. Natural selection
    3. Genetic drift
C. Other Evolutionary Topics
    1. Adaptation
    2. Fitness
    3. Co-evolution/Co-adaptation
    4. Convergent vs. Parallel Evolution
D. Evidence For a Common Ancestry of Organisms (Evolution)E. Speciation
    1. Allopatric
    2. Sympatric
    3. Parapatric
F. Human Evolution

VIII. Diversity of Nature Survey

A. Kingdom Survey Monera
B. Kingdom Survey Protista
C. Kingdom Survey Fungi
D. Kingdom Survey Plantae
E. Kingdom Survey Animalia

IX. Population Dynamics

A. General Population Characteristics
    1. Linear Growth
    2. Exponential Growth
    3. Logistic Populations
    4. Carrying Capacity
    5. Limiting Factors
B. Human Population Dynamics
    1. Birth Rate, Death Rate, & Annual Percentage Growth Rate
    2. Comparison Between More Developed & Less Developed Countries
      3. Methods and Ethics of Human Population Control

X. Ecology

A. Ecosystem Structure
    1. Abiotic Factors
    2. Biotic Factors
B. The Flow of Energy in Ecosystems
    1. Food Chains
    2. Food Webs
    3. Energy Pyramids
    4. Symbiotic Relationships
      a. Communalism
      b. Mutualism
      c. Parasitism
C. Major Ecosystems
    1. Marine
    2. Aquatic
    3. Estuarine
    4. Terrestrial
D. Biogeochemical Cycles
    1. Nitrogen
    2. Phosphorus
    3. Carbon/Oxygen
    4. Soil
    5. Water
E. Succession
    1. Primary
    2. Secondary
F. Others Topic in Ecology
    1. Biological Magnification
    2. Feedback Loops
G. Controversies in Ecology
    1. Greenhouse Warming
    2. Ozone Depletion
    3. Endangered Species List

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